The course
consists of a first part, which is focused on the theoretical
aspects of continuum mechanics. The general Eulerian and
Lagrangian forms of stress and strain tensors and of balance
equations are presented and the forms that are valid under the
assumptions of small strains and displacements will be derived. A
second part of the course presents and applies the force and the
displacement approaches for the analyses of typical aerospace
structures, starting from the types that can be modelled as
systems of beams. In particular, the methods for the evaluation
of the stress states in thin-walled beams, with inner diaphragms,
are presented, basing on semi-monocoque schemes. Subsequently,
plate theory is described and applied to orthotropic laminates
and sandwich structures. The final part of the course includes a
presentation of the methods for approximate solutions, such as
Ritz and Galerkin methods. Such approaches are employed to
introduce the finite element method, which is formalised for
structural and thermal problems in the linear field. The
theoretical and computational aspects of the method are
presented, including the application of the main modelling
techniques. Some applications to non-linear problems are
considered.

Aerothermodynamics

30

10

Fall 2010

Synopsis

One-dimensional
compressibile flows. Reminder of classical thermodynamics. Quasi
one-dimensional steady nozzle flow. One dimensional flow with
friction and heat transfer. Theory of characteristics applied to
unsteady flows. Normal shock waves and contact discontinuities.
Moving shock waves and shock reflections. Multidimensional
compressibile inviscid flows. General form of the governing
equations in three dimensions. Homoentropic and irrotational
flows. Bernoulli theorem for compressibile flows. Perturbation
potential, Prandtl-Glauert equation. Method of characteristics in
supersonic flows, Prandtl-Meyer expansion, minimum length
nozzles. Compressions, oblique shock waves. Transonic flows
Viscous compressibile flows. Compressible Couette flow ,
adiabatic recovery temperature. Compressible boundary layer
equations, solution for the flow over a flat plate and for the
stagnation point region. Turbulent boundary layer, reference
temperature method. Hypersonic flows. Inviscid hypersonic flows,
hypersonic similarity rule. Approximate methods: Newton’s
method, tangent cone method, thin shock layer method. High
temperature flow phenomena. Chemical thermodynamics of the
reacting mixtures, thermo-chemical equilibrium. Shock and
homoentropic relations at equilibrium conditions. Chemical and
vibrational non equilibrium. Heat transfer in hypersonic boundary
layers. Kinetic theory of gases: distribution function,
Boltzmann’s equation, collision integral, equilibrium
conditions, Maxwell’s distribution. Connection between
microscopic and macroscopic description of the gas.

Orbital Mechanics

30

10

Fall 2010

Synopsis

The course
provides a comprehensive presentation of orbital mechanics
theory, for a detailed analysis of problems related to space
missions. The student will acquire familiarity with methods and
tools useful to analyse and solve a variety of space mission
trajectory problems, related to near Earth and interplanetary
missions. In detail, the following subjects are taught: elements
of astronomy, the Solar system, the basic problem of the
celestial mechanics, perturbations and keplerian co-ordinates,
two and three bodies problems, elements of impulsive dynamics,
launchers, multistage optimisation, gravity motion, escape
velocity, orbital motion, orbit transfer, interplanetary motion,
re-entry, rendez-vous, orbit perturbations.

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Propulsion

28

10

Spring 2011

Synopsis

Introduction
to aerospace propulsion: Survey of aerospace propulsion missions.
Classification of engines according to applications and operating
conditions. Airbreathing propulsion (alternating engines,
turbo-jets, turboprop, turbofan, ramjets, hypersonic engines)
with external working fluid and rocket propulsion with internal
working fluid. Hybrid configurations, continuous and pulsed
operations, jet propulsion. Thrust, power, efficiency. Specific
consumption, specific impulses and total impulse, autonomy and
range. Energetics of thermochemical propulsion: Conversion of
chemical energy in thermal and mechanical energy. Thermochemical
energy and gas acceleration. Environmental impact. Governing
equations. Thrust theorem. Basic thermodynamic cycles.
Nonisentropic compressible flows: effects of stagnation
temperature and friction. Thermochemistry and thermodynamics of
high-temperature media: Calculation of performance in air or pure
oxidizers, combustion chambers and combustion efficiency.
Dependency of the available energy on the fuel type, mixture
ratio, and operating conditions. Supersonic combustion and
post-combustion. Gasdynamic nozzles: Ideal 1D treatment, subsonic
and supersonic expansion, optimum conditions, influence of
operating conditions. Nonequilibrium phenomena: shock waves,
boundary layer separation, chemical reactions, multiphase flows,
phase transitions. Real nozzles: 2D geometry, thrust vector
control. Fuels: traditional (hydrocarbons) and innovative
(synthetic, vegetal, biofuels, hydrogen, nano-metals). Problems
in airbreathing propulsion: Generalities on aeronautical
propulsion systems, basic architecture, subsonic and supersonic
air inlets, turbomachinery, combustor, nozzle, performance and
limitations, future developments. Problems in space propulsion:
Generalities on space propulsion systems, basic architecture,
tanks, feeling techniques, combustor, nozzle, performance and
limitations, future developments.

Dynamics and Control of Aerospace Structures and Fundamentals
of Aeroelasticity

29

10

Spring 2011

Synopsis

The course
aims at providing a unified vision of the dynamic modeling of
aerospace structures and their active control, coupling the
description of multiple degrees of freedom discrete systems with
that of continuous systems. A fundamental content is represented
by the integration of dynamic model of the structure with other,
thermo-aerodynamic, systems and their use in the design of active
controlers to improve thei performances.

Heat Transfer and Thermal Analysis

25

6

Spring 2011

Synopsis

The course
focuses on an advanced treatment of heat transfer, and it is
aimed to solve problems of intermediate complexity concerned with
the propulsion and with the thermal control of space equipments
and systems. Main topics. Modeling and design of heat transfer
processes with application to common aerospace technologies:
unsteady heat conduction in one or more dimensions, steady
conduction in multidimensional configuration, numerical
simulation; forced convection in laminar and turbulent flows;
phase change heat transfer; thermal radiation, black bodies, grey
radiation networks, spectral and solar radiation. Cooling of
space equipments and systems; thermal analysis tools:
lumped-capacity approach, FD/FEM numerical methods.

Technical Communication Skills

Approved

2

Spring 2011

Synopsis

The course
will provide the fundamental information at the basis of
scientific/technical communication; they will be focused to their
correct use in the redaction of a written text and of an oral
presentation.

Mathematical Methods for Engineering

Approved

10

Fall 2011

Synopsis

Lebesgue
measure and integrals. Banach spaces: Lagrange spaces and Lp
spaces. Hilbert spaces.Linear continuous operators and
functionals on Banach spaces. Dual space. Distributions
(definition, derivative, Fourier transform, etc.). Self-adjoint
compact operators: Riesz-Fredholm theory.Bilinear forms and
Lax-Milgram theorem. Variational formulation of linear partial
differential equations of second order.

Spacecraft Attitude Dynamics and Control

Approved

8

Fall 2011

Synopsis

The course
provides the basic knowledge on the angular motion of a rigid
satellite, on sensors and algorithms for attitude determination,
on actuators and attitude control laws.

Aerospace Technologies and Materials 2

Approved

8

Fall 2011

Synopsis

The course
of Aerospace Technologies and Materials has the purpose to impart
the basic concepts about the materials and the technologies
adopted for the construction of aerospace vehicles. To this aim,
the material and process selection strategies are preliminarily
analyzed, as well as property limit and indices. Then, the main
features of the principal families of materials used for
aerospace construction are presented, paying special attention to
metals, metal alloys and composite materials, as well as to the
related technologies for the construction of detached components.
Finally, the joining techniques are considered, together with the
assembling organization.

Telecommunication Systems

Approved

6

Fall 2011

Synopsis

Objective of
the course is to provide the students the theoretical
fundamentals of telecommunication with particular emphasis to
Earth - Space links to which specific reference will be made in
the final part of the course. The topics considered are the
characteristics of signals constituting the information to be
transmitted, the different techniques used to transmit and
receive the information, the basis of electronic circuits and the
elements of antennas. Also the issue of radiowave propagation in
the real environment at any frequency will be addressed.

Space Engineering Design Synthesis

Approved

6

Spring 2012

Synopsis

The course
provides the basic knowledge needed for the design synthesis of
space systems through a design exercise. Moreover, it provides
the basic competences needed to perform integration, testing and
qualification activities of space components.

Space Systems Design

Approved

6

Spring 2012

Synopsis

The course
provides the basic knowledge on the angular motion of a rigid
satellite, on sensors and algorithms for attitude determination,
on actuators and attitude control laws. In particular, the
following subject are presented: angular motion of a rigid
spacecraft, stability of rotation, attitude prediction, attitude
control devices, attitude control and maneuvers.